Student Source > POM1 > Physical Exam > HEENT Exam



  • External nose formed by bone and cartilage.
  • The nares, the anterior nasal openings, are surrounded by cartilaginous ala nasi and columella.

  • The nasal bridge is formed by the frontal and maxillary bones.
  • The septum divides the nose into two anterior cavities.
    • Kiesselbach's plexus is a grouping of small blood vessels on the anterior septum. It is a frequent site of nosebleeds.
  • The turbinates form the lateral walls of the nose, and are curved bony structures covered by mucous membranes. They run horizontally within the nasal cavity. There are three paired turbinates - inferior, middle and superior.
  • The sinuses are air-filled and paired extensions of the nasal cavities within the bones of the skull.  
    • Maxillary sinus - present at birth
    • Ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses - present by 1 year
    • Frontal sinus - present by 10 years

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