ICU Chest Films > Lung Processes > Atelectasis


Atelectasis

Atelectasis is a term used to describe reduced inflation in part of the lung. It is the most frequent abnormality detected in the ICU chest film. Atelectasis in ICU patients occurs most frequently in the left lower lobe, presumably due to compression of the lower lobe bronchus by the heart, in the supine patient. Contributing to this tendency is the relatively greater difficulty of blind suctioning of the left lower lobe. The etiology of atelectasis includes any process which reduces aveolar ventilation including general anesthesia, splinting from pain following surgery, or bronchial obstruction by mucus plugging. Mobilization of secretions may be inhibited by inflammatory lung disease, edema, or tracheal intubation. The final result is reduced alveolar distention resulting in decreased surfactant production which propagates the ateletasis further. Usually atelectasis is more extensive than is suggested by the radiograph. Extensive alveolar hypoventilation may result in an effective right to left shunt and subsequent hypoxia. Atelectasis is reversible and preventable with the use of hyperventilation and incentive spirometry especially in the post-operative period.

Which of the following is not a way to prevent atelectasis peri-operatively?
Cessation of smoking
Incentive spirometry
Antibiotics
Good pain control



© Copyright Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia 2013